Research Associations


The named scientific works are funded by the following establishments:

Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV)
Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik e.V. (FVA)
Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen „Otto von Guericke“ e.V. (AiF)

Logo Logo Logo

Selected scientific works:

Completed projects:



Near-zero Emission Concept for H2 DI Otto Engines

Logo FVV
Titel Near-zero Emission Concept for H2 DI Otto Engines
Funding Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV) - Eigenmittel
Projectnumber FVV1449

The aim of this FVV-funded project is to investigate the potential of a hydrogen combustion engine with direct injection in order to take a further step towards making hydrogen combustion engines for passenger cars ready for series production.

One focus of the project is to investigate the potential for reducing emission reduction. While no CO2 is emitted in a hydrogen combustion process, NOx emissions can be of significant amounts at certain operating points. Therefore, investigations will be performed on both a full engine and a single cylinder engine to derive the potentials and limitations in terms of charge dilution and emission. Furthermore, the anomalous combustion phenomena due to the low ignition energy required will be observed. CFD simulations of the gas exchange and combustion will support the thermodynamic investigations and contribute to a deeper understanding. The high mass diffusivity of hydrogen will affect the homogenization process and is expected to be faster than conventional fuels. The very high laminar burning rate and combustion instabilities pose a challenge for combustion modeling. This will also be considered as part of this project.

As a third pillar, the investigation and evaluation of concepts for exhaust gas aftertreatment of hydrogen combustion engines complements the overall approach of the project. For this purpose, concepts for engines with pure lean hydrogen combustion and lean & stoichiometric combustion control will be investigated. For the conversion of NOx emissions in lean-burn operation, both NSC- and SCR-based approaches as well as reasonable combinations will be considered. In addition, the conversion of carbonaceous emissions especially from oil consumption under stoichiometric conditions at rated power as well as a possible particle aftertreatment will be included.


10/2021 – 09/2024



Logo FVV
Titel Engine Knock Intensity Modelling for Future Fuels

CORNET/BMWK/AiF - Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz / AiF / International
Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV) - Eigenmittel

Projectnumber FVV1478

Peak efficiencies of spark ignition engines are often limited by the occurrence of knock. At the same time, engine knock is one of the most difficult phenomena to predict in simulation. Nevertheless, the FVV-project “Engine Knock Model” has led to a significant improvement in predicting the knock boundary while at the same time improving and validating 3D-CFD simulation approaches. Besides a broad variation of operating conditions, four different gasoline fuels/blends have been investigated and successfully modelled.

In a further step to reduce cost-intensive experiments, a simulation approach should not only predict a binary knock limit, but should also deliver indications regarding knock intensity and frequency. This holds especially true for a shift towards future, synthetic fuels being applied to SI-combustion systems.

Therefore, both 0D/1D as well as RANS 3D-CFD simulation models shall be extended to deliver information regarding knock intensity and frequency. Without such a model development, the latter can, being a very cost-effective approach, only model mean cycles without statistical information. Findings from FVV “Fast Knocking Prediction” shall support the development, carried out Large-Eddy Simulation can be utilized to model turbulent fluctuations. Also, the extensive measurement dataset of the forerunner project shall be further used.

The developed models then will be tested for the use of Methanol, Hydrogen and Ammonia. For both Methanol and Hydrogen, measurement data of other FVV projects can be used. For Ammonia, experiments at the knock limited spark advance are planned for a limited number of operating points.

The project aim is the development of a knock model for both RANS 3D-CFD and 0D/1D which can predict knock intensity and frequency and is also validated for a selection of synthetic fuels, which strongly differ from gasoline.


05/2022 – 04/2024



Pass-by Noise Simulation

Logo FVV
Titel Near-zero Emission Concept for H2 DI Otto Engines
Funding Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV) - Eigenmittel
Projectnumber FVV 1489

The subject of this FVV-funded research project is the prediction of noise emission during accelerated pass-by according to ISO 362. The aim is the specification for the development of an accurate prediction tool for pass-by noise.

The pass-by noise according to ISO 362 is the most important acoustic parameter for vehicle approval. The measurements required for this are mastered by the manufacturers. However, the effects of changes to components and vehicles as well as new vehicle and drive concepts on exterior noise cannot yet be reliably predicted. The components of the powertrain - from the engine to the transmission and axles to the tyres - are the main noise generators, each depending on the operating state of the individual components. Together with the damping and attenuation characteristics of the vehicle, this results in the sound levels at the pass-by microphones, whereby the directional and positional dependence of the vehicle in the measurement path must be taken into account.

A targeted NVH development of all components involved is considerably facilitated by the prognosis of the pass-by noise to be worked out here, based on excitation and transfer models as well as the simulation or optionally component test bench results of variants available at the supplier. The result of the prediction is the noise emissions as raw time data for the microphone positions of the accelerated pass-by.

The prognosis is developed for vehicles of the classes M and N as well as for the passenger car and commercial vehicle measurement procedure. Even new vehicle concepts with completely changed components and component positions in the vehicle can be predicted with it. In the future, the simulation model can also be incorporated into legislation via the UN regulations and thus be used for noise homologation.


02/2023 ‑ 01/2024




Logo FVV

Assessment of TCs with ejector-bypass for different mobility


Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV) - BMWK/AiF - Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action / German Federation of Industrial Research Associations

Projectnumber FVV1450

As part of the FVV project Ejector Bypass TC, a potential analysis of exhaust gas turbochargers (TC) with ejector bypass for different mobility applications is being investigated with a focus on increasing efficiency. It is examined to design the bypass channel as an ejector jet pump to exploit the previously unused thermodynamic potential of the bypass mass flow in the conventional TC with wastegate control. Compared to variable turbine geometry, ejector jet pumps can be designed with a much simplified and more robust structure. This technology could be of particular interest for applications with increased durability requirements (long distance, long haul, enhanced durability).

The use of the ejector jet pump is intended to utilize the exhaust enthalpy mass flow from the bypass path by exchanging momentum with the turbine outlet mass flow (suction mass flow) to produce a pressure drop downstream at the turbine wheel outlet. The lower turbine outlet counterpressure could here have a positive effect on engines and component in terms of efficiency and emissions.

The goal will be to develop a design process for turbines with downstream ejectors in exhaust gas turbochargers. CFD-based geometry-based optimization methodology through experimentally validated results will be used to create a predictive 1D model for an application-specific ejector jet pump design. The research results could not only be used in charging, but by using the ejector, the inflow behavior of downstream components such as catalyst inflow can be conditioned.

The further development of the fuel cell is currently the focus of many research projects. The results generated via the ejector jet pump, for example, could provide added value for turbine development for combustion engines and fuel cells. These are not only useful for small and medium-sized enterprises in the turbocharger industry, but could also be used, for example, by compressed air system technology for their own research and development.


10/2021 – 09/2023