Federal Ministry


The named scientific works are funded by the following establishments:

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMWi)
Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
Ministerium für Innovation, Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes NRW (NRW)

Logo Logo

Selected scientific works:
  • Zukunftscluster Wasserstoff : "Innovation nucleus of the hydrogen economy (Implementation phase 1)"
  • Carbon2Chem - "Carbon2Chem-2 L-4: C2+ alcohols, C2+ oIefine, synthetic fuel components"
  • Methanolstandard – "Investigation of the technical basis for the standardization of methanol fuels in Europe"
  • GNOSIS – "Holistic evaluation of electric flying"

Completed projects:

  • Methcar – " Joint project: MethCar – Methane engines for passenger cars
    Subproject: Injector robustness and exhaust gas catalysis as a function of fuel composition"
  • C3-Mobility – "Closed Carbon Cycle – Mobility: Climate neutral fuels for traffic of the future"
  • Leimot – "Lightweight-Engine: Weight reduction of an internal combustion engine by utilizing a purposefully structural optimization and using metal- plastic hybrid components"
  • X-EMU – "Development and Validation of a High-Performance Fuel Cell Propulsion System for Hybrid EMU railcars in a Modular Traction Design System"
  • P2X Kopernikus – "Oxymethylenether: Fuels and polymers based on CO2 and hydrogen"
  • XME-Diesel – "xME-Diesel – (Bio-) Methyl ethers as alternative fuels for the bivalent Diesel operation"
  • VARIMOT – "Variable systems to increase the efficiency of gasoline engines with small displacement"
  • GreenREx-BETRIEB – "Development of a bio-gas-powered Range Extender"
  • Anfahrt – "Alternative commercial vehicle drive trains for trucks and busses – clean and energy efficient road transportation“
  • BREEZE – "BREEZE! Fuel Cell Range Extender for Electric Vehicles: Zero Emission! "

  • TEAM – "Development of technologies for energy efficient drive trains of mobile power engines"
  • Europa Hybrid PlugIn - "Entwicklung eines elektrischen Antriebs für ein rückspeisefähiges PlugIn-Hybridfahrzeug mit optimiertem Batteriemanagement und niedrigem Verbrauch"


  Logo Zukunftscluster Wasserstoff
Title Innovation nucleus of the hydrogen economy (Implementation phase 1)
Acronym Zukunftscluster Wasserstoff
Funding Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

Hydrogen (H2), as a carbon-free energy carrier, offers the immediate potential to build a CO2-neutral energy economy. By converting from and to renewable electricity via electrolysis and fuel cells, hydrogen offers a sustainable solution for a wide range of mobility, residential and industrial applications. As an energy carrier and storage medium, hydrogen can be used directly for sector coupling.

For these reasons, hydrogen is currently the focus of national and international sustainability efforts. In Germany, numerous support measures are in place to activate the market. The cluster for future hydrogen intends to continuously feed these with technical innovations. To achieve this, however, the "Valley of Death" must be overcome, which is the area of medium technology maturity that is no longer supported by basic research but is not yet sufficiently mature for series development.

The cluster for future hydrogen solves this challenge by means of networking. In this way, individual technical projects are linked to form an overall picture, thereby achieving multiplier effects. The interdisciplinary and cross-application work brings together research, industry and society. This creates a regional innovation nucleus that makes an innovative contribution to the whole of Germany.

The cluster for future hydrogen pursues the goal of utilizing and strengthening networks and creating a model region for the production, distribution, storage and use of hydrogen: "Hydrogen technologies made in Germany" is to stand for outstanding, innovative cutting-edge technologies worldwide.

The Chair of Thermodynamics of Mobile Energy Conversion Systems (TME) is part of the projects HyInnoPEM on fuel cells for mobile propulsion, HyInnoSOFC on fuel cells for combined heat and power generation, HyInnoICE on the hydrogen internal combustion engine and HyInnoSys on innovation support measures.

Period 10/2021 - 09/2024


  Carbon2Chem Logo

Carbon2Chem-2 L-4: C2+ alcohols, C2+ oIefine, synthetic fuel components

Acronym Carbon2Chem

Federal Ministry of Education and Research

Projectnumber 03EW0008D

Carbon2Chem® is an initiative that started in 2016 under the direction of Thyssen Krupp. Numerous industrial companies, together with Max Planck and the Fraunhofer Society as well as universities are working together with the aim of producing valuable primary products for fuels, the plastics industry or fertilizers from carbon dioxide, an unavoidable by-product of steel production. The first phase of the project that ended in May 2020 focused on the development of sustainable processes with the emphasis on technical feasibility and economic efficiency. In the upcoming second phase the aim is the validation of the developed processes for industrial standards. This should ultimately lead to low-emission steel production. For this purpose, VKA is investigating the influence of the developed fuels on the efficiency and pollutant emissions when used in combustion engines.

Period 01.06.2020 – 31.05.2024


  Logo for project methanol standard
Title Methanolstandard – Investigation of the technical basis for the standardization of methanol fuels in Europe
Acronym Methanolstandard
Funding Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
Projectnumber 19 I 20005H

At the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference a reduction in CO2 emissions of 38 % by 2030 and 90 % by 2050 was agreed upon. To achieve this, CO2-neutral fuels need to be used in the transport sector.

Power-to-Gas or Power-to-Liquid concepts can provide regenerative fuels. In mobile applications, liquid fuels have the advantage of high energy density and easier storage. Methanol is one promising fuel, partially due to the high readiness level of the production process (TRL 9). Therefore, the CO2 reduction potential of methanol fuel, even medium term, can be assessed as high.

The aim of this research project is to provide a basis for the standardization of suitable methanol fuels in Europe. Germany should serve a model and provide a standard which can then be extended to all of Europe. This should pave the way for the certification and market introduction of methanol fuels.

To achieve this, the production of methanol using regenerative paths, methanol handling and the methanol infrastructure will be analyzed and potential for optimization will be identified. The interaction between methanol and existing vehicle components, aging behavior and the influence of additives on material compatibility and aging will also be investigated. Furthermore, methanol use in spark ignition engines as drop-in fuel (M15) and in specially designed engines (M100) will be investigated.

Chair of Thermodynamics of Mobile Energy Conversion Systems (TME) will conduct experimental investigation into the cold start behavior, the efficiency potential and the influence of additives on combustion and emissions.
Period 08/2020 – 07/2022


  Logo Gnosis
Title Holistic evaluation of electric flying
Acronym GNOSIS
Funding Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
Projectnumber 20E1916A

Funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the 13 project partners investigate the (partial) electrification of aviation. The usage of electrical components is seen as a possibility to reduce operating costs as well as greenhouse gas, nitrogen oxide as well as noise emissions. This holds true for the hybridization of current aircraft models, but is also a chance to develop new mobility options, for example the operation of urban and regional air taxis.

Current state of research shows that an electrification of aviation is not practical by default. In fact, any new concept needs to be proven individually for variations of system architecture and aircraft configuration. However, GNOSIS operates under the hypothesis that the introduction of a new technology, especially a (partial) electrification, will reveal new optima which can hold up against the local optimum of the classical system architecture in an overall evaluation.

A holistic analysis of the potentials of electric flight has not been undertaken yet. This is exactly what is done within the GNOSIS project. Following a well-structured technology selection, an in-depth analysis on aircraft vehicle as well as transportation system level is carried out. The evaluation will consider two assessment horizons (2025 and 2050) and at first considers an aircraft with 19 seats while later in the projects also 9 and 50 seat configurations are evaluated. The results will be integrated into a life-cycle assessment.

Period 05/2020 - 06/2022